Coffee consumption is associated with reduced risk of heart attack and stroke! A meta-analysis conducted in 2013 assessed 35 cohort studies involving 1 283 685 participants. This large study showed that moderate coffee consumption was associated with lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, with the lowest CVD risk at 3 to 5 cups per day of coffee consumption. It also found that heavy coffee consumption was not associated with elevated CVD risk. This is despite heavy coffee drinking also being associated with less healthy lifestyles such as higher rates of cigarette smoking, lower rates of physical activity and less healthy diets; confounders which further support the idea that coffee consumption is protective!
IMUNI recommends you down the cigarettes and pick up the coffee.